Teatteri on hyvin vanha taidemuoto, jossa näyttelijät esiintyvät yleisölle puhetta, musiikkia, eleitä ja tanssia hyödyntäen. Teatteritaide syntyi antiikin Kreikassa 500-luvulla eaa. Torit toimivat antiikin Kreikassa ensimmäisinä esityspaikkoina. Antiikin Kreikan teatterit ovat toimineet esimerkkinä nykyajan teatteriarkkitehtuurille. Nykyinen teatteri on lainannut antiikin Kreikasta myös näytelmäaiheita, kuten tragedia ja komedia. Ennen vuotta 500 eaa. teatterinäyttämöt olivat ulkoilmalavoja, joita reunustivat rinteisiin rakennetut katsomot. Teatterilla on useita eri muotoja, kuten baletti, ooppera ja pantomiimi. Teatteriesitykset esitetään useimmiten teattereissa, niille suunnitelluissa tiloissa. Teatteriesityksissä käytetään usein tunnelman luomisen apuna lavasteita ja valoja. Esityksiin tarvitaan paljon henkilökuntaa, niin esiintymislavalla, kuin lavan ulkopuolella. Tärkeimpiä henkilöitä ovat valo-, ääni- ja lavastevastaavat, sekä tietenkin itse esiintyjät. Teatteri on ollut hyvin tärkeä osa kulttuuriamme jo yli 2500 vuotta ja on surullista nähdä sen suosion lasku elokuvateattereiden, Netflixin ja muiden video- ja elokuvasivustojen vaikutuksesta. Teatteri on myös hyvä harrastus ihmiselle, joka haluaa olla luova, esiintyä suurille yleisöille ja tuoda itseään esille.

Teatterin muotoja

Draama on fiktiivinen teatterinäytelmän laji, jossa vuoropuheluiden muodossa esitetään henkilöiden tunteita. Draamanäytelmissä usein henkilöt joutuvat konfliktitilanteeseen näytelmän tärkeimmässä kohdassa. Teatterissa esitettävä draama edellyttää näyttelijöiltä hyvää tiimityötä. Draama yhdistetään usein musiikkiin ja tanssiin: oopperan draamassa on yleensä pelkkää laulua, musikaaleihin kuuluu yleensä sekä puhuttu vuoropuhelu että laulut ja joillakin draaman muodoilla on satunnaista musiikkia, joka korostaa vuoropuhelua. Draama jaetaan neljään päälajiin: Tragediaan eli murhanäytelmään, komediaan eli huvinäytelmään, vakavaan näytelmään, jota kutsutaan usein vain yksinkertaisesti näytelmäksi ja farssiin eli ilveilyyn.Musiikilla ja teatterilla on ollut läheiset suhteet muinaisista ajoista lähtien. Moderni musiikkiteatteri on teatterimuoto, jossa yhdistyvät musiikki, puhuttu vuoropuhelu ja tanssi. Se syntyi oopperasta 1800-luvun lopun ja 1900-luvun alun välisenä aikana. Kuuluisimpia musikaaleja myöhempinä vuosikymmeninä olivat My Fair Lady (1956) ja The Fantasticks (1960) ja nykyaikaisempia hittejä ovat esimerkiksi The Lion King (1997 ja Hamilton (2015). Musiikkiteatteria voidaan tuottaa intiimissä mittakaavassa teattereissa, joihin mahtuu noin 100-400 katsojaa, alueellisissa teattereissa ja muualla, mutta se sisältää usein myös spektaakkeli. Esimerkiksi Broadwayn musikaalit sisältävät usein ylellisiä pukuja ja lavasteita, joihin vaaditaan monen miljoonan dollarin budjetit.

Leijonakuningas

Teatterituotannot, jotka käyttävät huumoria ilmaisukeinonaan tarinan kerronnassa, ovat komedioita. Huumori voidaan jakaa seitsemään alalajiin, satiiriin eli kirjalliseen kantaa ottavaan ilmaisukeinoon, ironiaan eli ilmaisukeinoon jossa todellinen sanoma on eri kuin mitä näyttelijät kertovat, sarkasmiin eli pisteliääseen sanalliseen ironiaan, parodiaan eli ivamukaelmaan, komiikkaan eli hullunkurisuuteen, mustaan huumoriin, antihuumoriin eli lajiin josta on hauskuus tarkoituksella jätetty pois.Tähän voi sisältyä nykyaikainen farssi, kuten Boeing Boeing. Teatteria, joka ilmaisee synkkää, kiistanalaista tai tabuksi katsottua aihetta humoristisella tavalla, kutsutaan mustaksi komediaksi. Mustalla komedialla voi olla useita genrejä, kuten slapstick-huumori, synkkä ja sarkastinen komedia.

Aristotelesin

Aristotelesin lause ”useat lajit löytyvät pelin erillisistä osista” on viittaus draaman rakenteelliseen alkuperään. Tragedia viittaa tiettyyn draaman perinteeseen, jolla on ollut ainutlaatuinen ja tärkeä rooli historiallisesti länsimaisen sivilisaation itsemääritelmässä. Tämä perinne on ollut moninkertainen ja epäjatkuva, mutta termiä on usein käytetty kulttuurisen identiteetin ja historiallisen jatkuvuuden voimakkaan vaikutuksen herättämiseen. Nykyaikana tragedia on määritelty myös draamaa, melodraalia, tragikoomista ja eeppistä teatteria vastaan. Improvisaatioteatterissa teatterinesitykset luodaan paikan päällä, esittämishetkellä, improvisoiden. Näissä teattereissa ei ole käsikirjoitusta. Improvisaatio on ollut teatterin johdonmukainen piirre, Commedia dell’arte on 1600-luvulla tunnustettu ensimmäiseksi improvisaatiomuodoksi. Improvisaatio on teatterinlajeista luovuutta eniten vaativa. Nobel-palkinnon voittanut Dario Fo ja ryhmät, kuten Upright Citizens Brigade, ovat kehittyneet improvisaatio teatterissa.

119 thoughts on “Kaikki teattereista”

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