Englantilainen William Shakespeare on yksi tunnetuimmista ja historian merkittävimmistä näytelmäkirjailijoista. Shakespeare kuoli vuonna 1616, jättäen jälkeensä mahtavan kirjallisuuden perinnön. Hän kirjoitti niin tragedioita, komedioita, sonetteja, kuin runoja. Nykypäivänä Shakespearen teoksia on käännetty lukuisalle eri kielille, ja niitä esitetään yhä ympäri maailmaa. Macbeth on yksi Shakespearen maineikkaimmista tragedioista, ja syntyi hänen kahdeksan vuotta kestäneen tragedisen kautensa aikana (1600–1608). Macbeth on lyhin Shakespearen tragedioista. Juonellisesti Macbeth muistuttaa paljon Shakespearen toista näytelmää, Antoniusta ja Kleopatraa. Myös skottilainen historia on ollut isossa osassa näytelmän synnyssä. Pukuhuoneissa lausuttuna näytelmän nimen sanotaan tuovan huonoa onnea, ja esimerkiksi Britanniassa näytelmästä käytetään Macbethin sijaan nimitystä ”Scottish play”, eli ”skottilainen näytelmä”.Macbeth kertoo pahuudesta, ahneudesta, itsekkyydestä ja pelosta, ja on yksi Shakespearen synkimpiä tarinoita. Näytelmä perustuu Skotlannin kuninkaan Macbethin elämänvaiheisiin, joka hallitsi vuosina 1040–1057. Näytelmä ei ole historiallisesti tarkka, vaan kuvaa oikean Macbethin 17 vuoden aikaa hallitsijana yhden vuoden mittaisena. Macbeth sai ensi-iltansa Lontoon Globe-teatterissa vuonna 1606. Tuohon aikaan naiset eivät saaneet näytellä, joten miehet esittivät myös naisrooleja. Yhden tarinan mukaan itse Shakespeare olisi ottanut vastuulleen Macbethin vaimon roolin, kun päänäyttelijä oli sairaana. Vuonna 1908 Macbeth aloitti myös valkokankaiden valloituksen mustavalkoisella mykkäelokuvalla. Ehkä kuuluisin elokuvaversio Macbethista on Orson Wellesin vuoden 1948 elokuva. Elokuva kuvattiin vain 23 päivässä, osittain edellisen elokuvan lavasteissa.

Oulun teatterissa

Macbeth on vielä tänäkin päivänä yksi esitetyimmistä näytelmistä ympäri maailman. Suomessa Macbethia esitetään muun muassa Oulun teatterissa, Paul Stebbingsin ohjaamana. Juonta mukaillen on tehty myös sarjakuvia ja kirjoja. Yhdessä sarjakuvassa Supermies kuvataan Macbethin oikeana kirjoittajana Shakespearen sijaan. Näytelmä sisältää paljon vitsejä ja ironiaa sen aikaista Britannian kuningasta, James I:tä kohtaan. James I oli erittäin kiinnostunut noituudesta, ja luultavasti tämän takia Shakespeare loi näytelmään kolme noitahahmoa.

Kenraalista kuninkaaksi

Sotilaskenraali Macbeth on matkalla kotiinsa voitokkaan taistelun jälkeen, ja törmää matkallaan kolmeen noitaan. Noidat ennustavat Macbethin hallitsevan pian Cawdorin kreivikuntaa ja myöhemmin koko valtakuntaa kuninkaana. Macbethin mukana kulkevasta ystävästä Banquosta noidat ennustavat tulevan kuningassuvunkantaisä.Pian noitien ennustuksen jälkeen sanansaattaja tuo Macbethille viestin, että kuningas on lahjoittanut hänelle Cawdorin kreivikunnan. Macbeth alkaa uskoa enemmän noitien ennustuksiin, eikä saa päästään ajatusta kuninkuudesta. Hän alkaa laatia suunnitelmaa nykyisen kuninkaan murhaamisesta vaimonsa kanssa.Macbeth murhaa kuninkaan tikarilla tämän nukkuessa, ja onnistuu lavastamaan kuninkaan juopuneet henkivartijat syyllisiksi. Kuninkaan kaksi poikaa pakenevat maasta kuoleman pelossa, ja Macbeth kruunataan kuninkaaksi. Pian kruunajaisten jälkeen Macbeth alkaa kokea vanhan ystävänsä, Banquon, uhkana hänen valtakaudelleen, ja surmauttaa hänet. Tämän jälkeen Macbeth alkaa nähdä katumuksensa ja tunnontuskiensa keskellä harhoja, kuten Banquon haamun istumassa hänen valtaistuimellaan.

Macduff (näyttelijä)

Macbethin kynsistä karannut ylimys Macduff alkaa koota vastarinta-armeijaa Britanniassa. Hän yhdistää voimansa entisen kuninkaan pojan, Malcolmin, kanssa. Yhdessä he lähtevät vapauttamaan Skotlantia nykyisen hirmuvaltiaan kynsistä.Macbeth menee tapaamaan noitia uudestaan, ja saa näiltä totuudenmukaisia, mutta erittäin harhaanjohtavia lupauksia. Macbethin tuntiessa yhä suurempia tunnontuskia kaikista hirmuteoistaan, hänen vaimonsa alkaa myös näkemään harhoja ja tappaa itsensä. Vaimonsa kuoleman jälkeen Macbeth lausuu kuuluisat sanansa: ”Elämä on kuin varjo häilyväinen, vain näyttelijä rukka, joka riehuin lavalla keikkuu aikansa ja häipyy; se kertomus on, hupsun tarinoima, täys ääntä, vimmaa – tarkoitusta vailla”.Macbeth joutuu hyljätyksi niin vaimonsa, kuin armeijansa ja hovinsa puolesta. Hän kuolee, kun Macduff vastarinta-armeijoineen saapuu kostamaan hirmuhallitsijan teot. Entisen kuninkaan pojasta, Malcolmista tulee uusi, hallitseva kuningas.

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